1. DEFINING TERMS – Mindfulness (What is it?)

  1. What is Mindfulness? (video, 5:17min) Mindfulness expert Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn defines “What is mindfulness?” and discusses the hard work and rewards of practicing mindfulness. Jan 3, 2013
  2. Why Mindfulness Is a Superpower: An Animation, Dan Harris, TV Anchor and author describes how practicing mindfulness is one of the single most powerful things you can do for your wellbeing.
  3. What Do We Have All Wrong About Meditation?  (video, 4:10), Happify video featuring Dan Harris, dispelling 3 myths: meditation is only for weird people, it’s too hard and I don’t have time to do it.
  4. What is Mindfulness? (article) – Dr. Danny Penman’s description of mindfulness (how, observing without criticizing, secular, can sit in chairs or practice anywhere, doesn’t take a lot of time, not complicated,  increases clarity vs dulling your edge).
  5. 3 Misconceptions About Meditation (article) – Susan Piver, bestselling author and meditation teacher, explains what meditation is by debunking 3 very common meditation myths (stops thinking, makes you peaceful, form of self-help).
  6. Mindfulness (good, historical description of modern western mindfulness)
  7. Overview of 23 Types (Though the details laid out in this  article aren’t all that clear to me, it makes some generalizations that I find helpful. It can provide a good starting point for understanding some of the big differences between some of the different types of meditation.)

2. DEFINING TERMS – State and Trait Mindfulness

State and Trait Mindfulness (article) – By  Peter Malinowski. Research on the importance of state mindfulness, “the immediate experience of being mindful”, and dispositional or trait mindfulness, “something more lasting, of generally being more mindful in their lives.” From Meditation Research, Psychological Science of Meditation, June 26, 2015.          

3. DEFINING TERMS – Kindness & Compassion

  1. The Three Components of Self-Compassion (video, 6:18min) Dr Kristin Neff, leading compassion researcher, defines self-compassion. She describes the importance of acknowledging a problem first and giving ourselves care and compassion before going into fixing mode.

4. DEFINING TERMS – Performance vs Productivity (simply put productivity is quantity of work while performance is quality.)


5. DEFINING TERMS – Performance


6. CREDIBILITY of Mindfulness:

  1. 60 Minutes Special on Mindfulness Anderson Cooper
  2. The Emerging Science of Consciousness, Part 4: Becoming Conscious: The Science of Mindfulness
  3. Companies that use mindfulness:


  1. Contemplating Mindfulness at Work: An Integrative Review (article): Darren J. Good, et al.  look at research to date on using mindfulness in the workplace. (2015)
  2. Dan Harris: Hack Your Brain’s Default Mode with Meditation (video, 3:43min) Dan Harris, News Correspondent, explains the neuroscience behind meditation, but reminds us that the ancient practice isn’t magic and likely won’t send one floating into the cosmic ooze. He predicts that the exercise will soon become regularly scheduled maintenance, as commonplace as brushing your teeth or eating your veggies. Harris, an ABC News correspondent, was turned on to mediation after a live, on-air panic attack. His latest book is 10% Happier: How I Tamed the Voice in My Head, Reduced Stress Without Losing My Edge, and Found Self-Help That Actually Works–A True Story, Aug 19, 2014

8. SCIENTIFIC STUDIES – Executive Attention (Performance Indicator)

  1. Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training (research article) Zeidan, et al. Study on short term meditation (20min x4) yielding results: improvements in Executive attention including focus, working memory & information speed processing 2009
  2. Brief meditative exercise helps cognition (article) Same study with different info (media report = easier to read), April 2010
  3. Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation (research article) Another study on short term meditation yielding results. 2007

9. SCIENTIFIC STUDIES – Mindfulness Changing Brain Structure

  1. How Meditation Can Reshape Our Brains (video, 8:24min): Dr. Sara Lazar, Neuroscientist, at TEDxCambridge 2011 presenting her research: brain scans show meditation can actually change the size of key regions of our brain, improving our memory and making us more empathetic, compassionate, and resilient under stress.
  2. Meditation Science, Sara Lazar One (video 5:08m)  Dr Sara Lazar was interviewed by Michael and Elizabeth McCartney in 2007. This is part one of a three part interview and is part of the series of free meditation lessons.
  3. Neuroscience of Yoga and Meditation list of research publications by Sara Lazar, Ph.D.
  4. The Benefits of Meditation (video) – Jon Kabat-Zinn, PhD, creator of MBSR, renouned teacher & researcher, on the effects of mindfulness on the brain.
  5. Dispositional Mindfulness Co-Varies with Smaller Amygdala and Caudate Volumes in Community Adults (research article) 2013.
  6. Mindfulness Meditation Training Alters Stress-Related Amygdala Resting State Functional Connectivity: A Randomized Controlled Trial (research article) 2015.
  7. Mindfulness Can Literally Change Your Brain (article) Christina Congleton , Britta K. Hölzel,Sara W. Lazar describe their research on how mindfulness changes the structure of the brain, particularly the ACC and the hippocampus. JANUARY 08, 2015.

10. SCIENCE (Reports) – Mindfulness & the Brain

  1. Mind the Bump – Mindfulness and how the brain works (video, 3:50min) Smiling Mind’s description of how the brain works (neuroplasticity – the more we worry the better we become at worrying and if we practice being calm, clear and focused we can strengthen these networks too; frontal lobes – when strengthened can manage strong emotions and respond with flexibility; amygdala – monitors stress and anxiety and releases stress hormones; and how mindfulness helps us regulate all of these things, literally changing the structure of the brain. Published on Feb 2, 2015
  2. Why the brain needs to rest, relax, sleep (& meditate) (article)
  3. How Does Meditation Change the Brain? – Instant Egghead #54 (video, 2:23) Ferris Jabr, editor for Scientific American, describes how mindfulness makes connections in brain more robust allowing more synchronized communication between the different parts of the brain. Studies show in expert meditators have a more wrinkly cortex, the outer layer, responsible for  it increases the part of the brain responsible sophisticated mental abilities like abstract thought and introspection. Also increases volume and density of hippocampus, crucial for memory. Areas responsible for sustaining attention that usually shrink with age do not decrease in meditators. Improves attention and working memory (storing & manipulating information in one’s mind).   Can sharpen attention, strengthen memory and improve other mental abilities. Scientific American editor Ferris Jabr examines the changes in brain structure behind some of these benefits. Published on Oct 31, 2013
  4. Mindful Meditation and the Brain (video, 6min) Dr. Shauna Spairo, PhD (Greater Good Science Center) Psychologist, researcher, and mindfulness teacher Shauna Shapiro talks about the encouraging research behind meditation and its potential to change the structure of our brains and our level of happiness. (Happiness set points, changing cortical thickness via neuroplasticity, what we practice becomes stronger.) (Meditation makes us happier by changing the interior experience, we rebuild habits that are kinder, less critical.)
  5. Does Meditation Really Affect Your Brain? (video) SciShow’s Hank Green looks at how meditation affects your behaviors and your brain. There’s still a lot of work to do, and mindfulness may have benefits. March 2017

10. SCIENCE STUDIES – Neuroplasticity

  1. After watching this, your brain will not be the same (video, 14:24min) Dr Lara Boyd’s TEDxVancouver presentation on her research into neuroplasticity: how our daily behaviors shape our brain, why practice is important and that we all learn differently. This presentation helps us understand how practicing meditation literally shapes our brain – like all of the activities that we do – and why regular practice is important in maintaining the physical structures and mental benefits. This is one of the clearest descriptions of neuroplasticity I’ve ever seen.

11. SCIENTIFIC STUDIES – Focus & Attention (Performance Indicators)

  1. Measuring Mindfulness (video, 6min), Dr Judson Brewer, neuroscientist, shares his research on what objects of focus create a state of mindfulness and which do not.  Describes mindfulness is a flow state, “Flow is a mental state when a person is fully immersed in the present in a feeling of energized focus.”
  2. Meditation and Attentional Blink (capacity to focus/pay attention) (article)
  3. Same study as 1, with different information offered. (article)
  4. Mindfulness Practice and the Brain (video, 5:16m) Neuroscientist Richard Davidson describes the kinds of brain activity observed during meditation, and the features of brain activity of experienced meditators. Mindfulness enhances areas of the brain responsible for attention, and people who have meditated longer have gamma frequencies throughout their brain and reduced “noice” or random brain activity so that they are better able to “lock on to” (or notice) external stimulus.

SCIENCE (Reports) – Focus & Attention

  1. The commodification of our attention (article) (our attention as a resource; companies using more and more public space to place advertisements so that we have to pay attention to them and have less and less uncluttered space); New York Times article by MATTHEW B. CRAWFORD Mar 7, 2015
  2. Wandering Mind, Not a Happy Mind (article), Steve Bradt, Harvard Gazette, The mind wanders 47% of the time and this typically makes us unhappy.

11. SCIENCE – Measuring Focus

  1. Test Your Focus (interactive test) New York Times 2010
  2. Concentration Practice Test (text based test) by Psychometric Success
  3. Concentration Game (interactive test) by Brain Metrix
  4. Concentration Test by Happy Brain
  5. A Classic Test of Focus by Bulletproof Musician

12. SCIENCE (Reported) – Decision Fatigue

  1. Willpower and Decision Fatigue James Clear’s article on how we have a limited amount of will power available in a day, as well as decision making capacity and how both of those two thing affect our ability to be effective and make good decisions.

13. SCIENCE (Reported)- Habit Creation

  1. How to Build a New Habit: This is Your Strategy Guide (article) Author James Clear’s well researched  guide on habit formation with his favorite studies cited. His website is well worth reading for those interested in the current science and ideas behind habit formation.
  2. Science backed ways to make habits stick (article) A few more ideas behind habit formation and a few different studies cited.
  3. Good Habits (article) Very similar article with a few different studies cited.

14. SCIENCE – Stress (Eustress, Acute & Chronic Stress)

  1. How to make stress your friend (video, 14:28), Kelly McGonigal, Psychologist, Presents research that says how we think about stress changes how it affects our bodies. When asked about how to deal with stressful choices, go after what it is that creates meaning in your life and then trust yourself to handle the stress that follows
  2. Visual infographic illustrating the main idea from the talk above (How to make stress your friend (video, 14:28), Kelly McGonigal) that if you think about stress in a positive way, you change it’s effect on you.
  3. Can Stress Can be Good for You? by Jane Weaver for NBC News
  4. Stress Can be Good For You (unfortunately uses several animal tests to make points about humans) by Jessica Stillman
  5. Managing Stress of An Exciting Life (How much stress is too much? Lists indicators of too much stress) by Elizabeth Scott, MS in Counseling
  6. What Kind of Stress Is Good for You? By Elizabeth Scott, MS in Counseling
  7. Good Stress, Bad Stress (Lists for how you can tell when you have too much stress) ULifeLine

SCIENCE – Stress (The Stress Response, Autonomic Nervous System, Fight or Flight, Limbic System & the Amygdala)

    1. How Your Brain Deals with Rising Stress (3min video) by The Emotional Intelligence Network
    2. Understanding the stress response, Chronic activation of this survival mechanism impairs health (article) Harvard Medical School Published: March, 2011
    3. Autonomic Nervous System: Crash Course A&P #13 (video, 10:43min) Hank takes you on a tour of your two-part autonomic nervous system. This episode explains how your sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system work together as foils, balancing each other out. Their key anatomical differences – where nerve fibers originate and where their ganglia are located – drive their distinct anatomical functions, making your sympathetic nervous system the “fight or flight” while your parasympathetic nervous system is for “resting and digesting.” — Table of Contents The Basic Two-Part System of the Autonomic Nervous System 0:48 Sympathetic Nervous System 2:33 Parasympathetic Nervous System 2:54 Their Nerve Fibers Originate in Different Parts of the Body 3:22 Sympathetic Ganglia Are Close to the Spinal Cord 4:36 Parasympathetic Ganglia Are Close to Their Effectors 4:59
    4. Sympathetic Nervous System: Crash Course A&P #14 (video, 10:43min) Hank tries not to stress you out too much as he delves into the functions and terminology of your sympathetic nervous system. — Table of Contents Sympathetic Nervous System Controls the Body’s Stress Response 0:26 How Signals Travel to Effectors 1:48 Acetylcholine in the Ganglion 3:55 Norepinephrine at the Effector 4:42 Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Are Secreted as Hormones 5:35 Alpha Receptors Cause Smooth Muscles to Constrict 7:14 Beta Receptors Cause Smooth Muscles to Relax 7:27
    5. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Crash Course A&P #15 (video, 10:16min) This week we are looking at your parasympathetic division, which is the “resting and digesting” unit. Unfortunately, learning about this de-stressing division also involves a whole lot of memorization. Don’t worry, though – we’ve got some mnemonic devices to help you out! — Table of Contents Parasympathetic Nervous System 0:40 Structural Differences from the Sympathetic System 1:41 Twelve Cranial Nerves 4:02 Vagus Nerve 6:40


  1. Parts of the Brain Involved in Fight or Flight (article) by Melissa Sherrard
  2. Fight or Flight Response: Play-by-Play (article) by Genetic Science Learning Center, Utah
  3. The limbic System: Amygdala & Amygdala Hijack (article) Navneet Ahuja (Nany), Wutyi Thwe Myat (Hailey), Alexandra Cervantes, Natasha Zah

  4. Emotions: limbic system | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy (video) by Jeffrey Walsh detailing the parts of the limbic system and what they do (hypothalamus, amygdala, thalamus, hippocampus).  Dec 15, 2013

SCIENCE – Mindfulness & Sleep

  1. Meditation As Medicine: Reduce Pain, Blood Pressure & Improve Sleep (article)  James Colquhoun, Documentarian June 6, 2017, Research on mindfulness and sleep.
  2. Survey on the Sleep Quality and Quantity of Hong Kong’s Working Population by Hong Kong University 92% are sleep deprived!!! And 60% didn’t know that they were sleep deprived.
  3. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Your Body by Healthline. Lowered concentration and thinking abilities (plus health issues).
  4. Online mindfulness intervention reduces fatigue, negative work-related worry (article) – ScienceDaily excerpt of a study by Dawn Querstret and Professor Mark Cropley. “Brief online mindfulness interventions requiring only two hours of training and practice per week are effective at reducing fatigue and negative work-related rumination and at improving sleep quality, a study concludes.” Reported September 9, 2014.
  5. Mindfulness meditation helps fight insomnia, improves sleep (article) – Harvard Medical School report on a study led by David S. Black, PhD, MPH (Harvard Medical School). The study was done on older adults (55+) and found that compared to typical sleep hygiene education, mindfulness was more effective. Reported February 18, 2015.
  6. Patients with insomnia have altered activity in specific brain regions (article) – A ScienceDaily excerpt of a study led by Daniel Buysse M.D. (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center). “Specific brain regions, including those involved in awareness of self and tendency to ruminate, show altered activity in patients with insomnia when compared to good sleepers, according to a new study. This study… may increase understanding of why treatments such as mindfulness meditation are effective in some patients.” Reported October 19, 2016.
  7. Study links heavy texting, sleep problems in college freshmen (article) – ScienceDaily excerpt of  research by psychology professor Karla Murdock (Washington and Lee University). “The key finding was that a higher number of daily texts was associated with more sleep problems. Murdock notes that this finding reinforces previous evidence pointing to a direct association between cell-phone use and poor sleep in adolescents and emerging adults. Among the potential causes for this connection are two tendencies: students’ feeling pressured to respond immediately to texts, no matter what time of day or night, and students’ sleeping with the phone nearby, thus being awakened by the alerts from incoming texts.” Reported September 26, 2013.


  1. The powerful secret of your breath (video, 15:25) Dr Romila  Mushtaq, MD on how career burnout as a neurologist and a life threatening disease caused her to change her life, begin yoga and meditation and find her life purpose. She offers simple steps to improving your life and 1 powerful practice: breathe.
  2. 7 tips to keep your energy levels high at work (article) Want to feel more energy throughout your work day? Here are seven strategies to get you started on your own personal energy project. By Molly Furzer


  1. Meditation 101: A Beginner’s Guide Animation (video, 2:01min) Happify animation featuring Dan Harris, news correspondent with a clear explanation of how to do practice mindfulness meditation.
  2. Dan Harris Meditation Summary (video 3:35m), Dan Harris’s ABC News Nightline report on meditation, why he started, the benefits and how to do it.
  3. Here’s How You Can Meditate Anytime, Anywhere (video & article) – Mingyur Rinpoche, Tibetan Buddhist monk on a very simple explanation of how to practice mindfulness.

HOW TO PRACTICE MINDFULNESS MEDITATION – Working with the Mind during Mindfulness Practice

  1. The normal mind (before/not meditating)
    1. Wandering Mind, Not a Happy Mind (article), Steve Bradt, Harvard Gazette, The mind wanders 47% of the time and this typically makes us unhappy.

HOW TO PRACTICE MINDFULNESS MEDITATION – How to work with thoughts (& Emotions, Physical Sensations)

    1. Mindfulness Dissolves Thoughts — Attention Is What’s Left Over, with Jon Kabat-Zinn (video, 5:28), Jon Kakat-Zin, the creator of modern mindfulness practice, on how to work with thoughts. That you don’t need to do anything with them other than watch them. This awareness makes them disappear like soap bubbles. Great video!
    2. Understanding Meditation | Changing perspective (video, 1:36min), Andy Puddicomb for Headspace; How to work with thoughts: Watching thoughts go by like watching passing cars / traffic
    3. Don’t Try to be Mindful (video, 11:29min), Daron Larson addresses a common misunderstanding about mindfulness practice, that if our meditation is not peaceful and free of thoughts, then we must be doing something wrong (Getting Comfortable with the discomfort). Also, that repeatedly being aware of little things in any moment will create awareness overtime (We’re interrupting the narrative, the litany of thoughts that we get lost in and thus stop noticing what’s happening in the present.) – Thanks to Dave Potter of Palouse Mindfulness Online MBSR Course for highlighting this video! or
    4. Why Meditate? How not trying to change creates change! (article) Nancy Colier, LCSW, Rev., describes how to work with the mind, and explains why you don’t have to stop thinking in order to practice meditation. Posted in Psychology Today, 2013.
    5. All it takes is 10 mindful minutes. (video, 9min, transcript available) – Andy Puddicomb, former Buddhist monk, co-founded Headspace, a project to make meditation more accessible to more people in their everyday lives. Great description of how to work with the mind during mindfulness: don’t need to stop thoughts, instead have a balanced, focused concentration. [If you prefer, the transcript is available on the same page. Click Play and then on “Transcript” at the base of the video, to the right of the title.]
    6. 3 Misconceptions About Meditation (article) – Susan Piver, bestselling author and meditation teacher, debunks 3 big meditation myths (stopping thinking, makes you peaceful, self-help).
    7. Why We Find it Hard To Meditate (article):  Ed & Deb Shapiro,, Addresing common meditaiton road blocks (too busy, can’t sit still,  keep thinking, too many distractions/noisy, not seeing benefits, not doing it right/not good at meditating, this is weird/New Age hype)

HOW TO PRACTICE MINDFULNESS MEDITATION – Being Kind to the Mind (This is a way to understand how to notice thoughts versus getting lost in them.)

  1. Preventing Discouragement (video) – Gen Kelsang Rabten (British) Buddhist monk on how to work with the mind during meditation practice. Brilliant. I really appreciate the clarity of this offering. He teaches in Hong Kong at the Kadmapa Centre in Causeway Bay.)
  2. The Power of Mindfulness: What You Practice Grows Stronger (video, 13:45 min), Shauna Shapiro, PhD. on how mindfulness changes our brain and our experience, plus the importance of paying attention to our inner experience with kindness.
  3. Turning Toward Difficulty (video, 10:15) Vidyamala Burch, Thank you Palouse Mindfulness for hosting this shortened video about how turning towards our thoughts and feelings with kindness helps us care for ourselves vs be reactive.
  4. The Three Components of Self-Compassion (video, 6:18) Dr. Kristin Neff, leading researcher on compassion explains the 3 parts of self-compassion.


  1. See Science, Habit Creation section for more resources
  2. See Science, The Brain section


  1. How to gain control of your free time (video): Laura Vanderkam, October 2016 at TEDWomen 2016


  1. Mindfulness: A Building Block of Emotional Intelligence (article) by PAUL KIMMERLING December 11, 2014
  2. Daniel Goleman Introduces Emotional Intelligence (5min video) by EI pioneer, Daniel Goldman



  1. Integrated Medicine Institute (IMI) Monday Evenings in Central, 6:15-7:15pm, by Donation
  2. Balance Health Tuesday Lunch  in Central, 1-2pm, $300
  3. Kadamapa Meditation Centre OR
  4. Kwan Um School of Zen
  5. Plum Village, once a month on HK Island on Fridays, Half day retreats on Lantau on Sundays


  3. Stop, Breathe & Think
  4. Simply Being (app)
  5. Meditation Studio (app)


  1. Muse Meditation band


  1. Smartphones
    1. Class App: Can Smartphones Make Students Pay Attention? (Using Apps in classrooms to teach kids) in ReadWrite by Loren Orsini May 2013
    2. Smart Phones are distracting even when we aren’t looking at them (includes data from scientific studies) Quartz by Max Neilson in 2015
    3. The Age of Distraction: Getting Students to Put Away Their Phones and Focus on Learning (refers to sci studies on how we’re not good at cross context focusing = we’re distracted when we’re doing several things that are not all in the same context like facebook + listening to a math lesson) in Faculty Focus by Maryellen Weimer, PhD Jan 2014
    4. We’re creating a culture of distraction (We are creating and encouraging a culture of distraction where we are increasingly disconnected from the people and events around us and increasingly unable to engage in long-form thinking. People now feel anxious when their brains are unstimulated. We are losing some very important things by doing this. We threaten the key ingredients behind creativity and insight by filling up all our “gap” time with stimulation. And we inhibit real human connection when we prioritize our phones over our the people right in front of us. What can we do about it? Is this path inevitable or can balance be restored?) by Joe Kruss, Partner at Google Ventures  in May 2012


  1. Meditation Programs
    3. MindWork offers a full range of mindfulness courses, workshops, taster sessions, and individual coaching, all tailored to meet your organisation’s particular needs.
  2. Stress Management
    1. Self-study program for women! (Women could be an interesting niche?)
    2. Stress Resiliency and Leadership (program outline) (program cost)
  3. Wellness Programs
    1. General terms, ideas and articles http://wellnessproposals.cPrograms that exist in HK!


  1. Flow, the secret to happiness (video, 18:51min) Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, psychologist and the creator or the term “flow state” on flow. One of his subjects described flow as  “I have nothing to do with what is happening. I just sit there watching… [my body] in a state of awe and wonderment.” Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi has contributed pioneering work to our understanding of happiness, creativity, human fulfillment and the notion of “flow” — a state of heightened focus and immersion in activities such as art, play and work. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi says creativity is a central source of meaning in our lives. A leading researcher in positive psychology, he has devoted his life to studying what makes people truly happy: “When we are involved in [creativity], we feel that we are living more fully than during the rest of life.” He is the architect of the notion of “flow” — the creative moment when a person is completely involved in an activity for its own sake. [ecstacy, Gk, to stand to the side of something.]
  2. When Mindfulness Trumps Flow (article), Dr Ryan M Niemiec, psychologist, asks “Which do you choose when these two positive processes collide?”  Posted Jun 11, 2013 in Psychology Today Magazine, One view of the difference between flow and mindfulness.
  3. Measuring Mindfulness (video, 6min), Dr Judson Brewer, neuroscientist, shares his research on what objects of focus create a state of mindfulness and which do not.  Describes mindfulness is a flow state, “Flow is a mental state when a person is fully immersed in the present in a feeling of energized focus.”
  4. A simple way to break a bad habit. Dr. Judson Brewer (video, 9:28min) Describes how being curious about thoughts and feelings can help us deal with them in a better way: less reactive. He supports with his research that mindfulness helps smokers quit 2x more effectively as the gold standard.
  5. You’re Already Awesome. Just Get Out of Your Own Way! (video, 10:20min), Judson Brewer MD, Ph.D. Presentation about how we can watch thoughts and emotions even as strong as addiction. He seems to encourage the use of measuring equipment to help train ourselves.


1. Is Mindfulness Safe? (article) – This article describes contraindications to mindfulness, mainly mental-emotinal health issues.

In my opinion, because mindfulness helps us see ourselves more clearly, I DO NOT recommend that you do this without the support of a counselor or psychotherapist if you have serious mental-emotional challenges. Likewise, if you start to feel overwhelmed by what you are discovering about yourself, get support immediately. If you have mental-emotional issues that require the care of a counselor or psychotherapist, it is best to consult them first, and if they agree, to do mindfulness under their supervision.

2.  Meditation Programs for Psychological Stress and Well-being: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (article) – JAMA article by Goyal et al. A meta-analysis of 47 rigorous meditation trials (culled from 18,757 trials as of 2012!) finding that mindfulness may help with depression, anxiety and pain; and was not found to be significantly more effective than exercise, medication, or therapy. I find the Discussion Section especially useful and thought provoking.

3. Does Mindfulness Mean Anything? (article) – Thoughtful article about the two main sources of criticism of mindfulness as we’re using it today: that the science isn’t as rigorous as proponents are making it out to be (that mindfulness isn’t better than other options available for stress reduction, depression, etc) and that it is being stripped of it’s depth by secularizing it, removing the Buddhist philosophy that it stems from.